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Abstract-摘要的类型和写作要求

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发表时间:2016-12-04 14:27

英文摘要(Abstract)的写作应用很广。论文摘要是全文的精华,是对一项科学研究工作的总结,对研究目的、方法和研究结果的概括。


一、摘要的类型

摘要的类型主要分为结构性、报道性、指示性和报道-指示性这几大类。


二、结构性摘要 Structured Abstract

行文中用醒目的字体(黑体、全部大写、或斜体),直接标出目的、方法、结果、结论等以便于读者了解论文的内容。一般来说,结构性摘要的字数不超过250个单词。

完整的摘要包括:

① Purpose(目的)

② Design/methodology/approach(设计/方法论)

③ Findings(发现)

④ Researchlimitations/implications(研究局限/意义)

⑤ Practical implications(实践意义)

Social implications(社会意义)

⑦ Originality/value(独创性/价值)

⑧ Keywords(关键词)

⑨ Type(文章类型)

其中,①②③⑦⑧⑨为必要部分,④⑤⑥可视情况选取。

例:Milorad M. Novicevic, Mario Hayek, TonyFang, (2011) "Integrating Barnard's and contemporary views of industrialrelations and HRM", Journal of Management History, Vol. 17 Iss: 1, pp.126-138

Abstract

Purpose –The purpose of this paper is to juxtapose the contemporary views of industrialrelations (IR) and human resource management (HRM) with the ideas expressed byChester Barnard.

Design/methodology/approachThe paper analyses Chester Barnard's viewsalong the four premises that underlie contemporary perspectives on the fieldsof IR and HRM.

Findings –Barnard's main points: that sincerity and honesty of management is crucial todeveloping an individual employee's will to collaborate, and that collectivecooperation is superior to collective bargaining are found to resonate wellwith the contemporary views and provide a clear indication for Barnard'spreference of human resource perspective to the IR perspective.

Practical/Social implications – This paper provides Barnard's practicalinsights into why managing IR and HR by policies leads to poor management.

Originality/value – This paper is the first to recognize Barnard's unique contribution tocontemporary perspectives on IR and HRM disciplines.


三、报道性摘要 Informative Abstract

也常称作资料性或情报性摘要,主要总结论文中的主要发现,运用于描述实验研究类论文和创新价值较大的、主题单一的文章,它向读者提供原文中的全部创新内容,提供尽可能多的定量或定性的信息。通常,这种摘要可以部分的取代阅读全文。

报道性摘要着重方法、结果和讨论三部分,目的和其他信息的介绍相对简略。

例:Bradley E. Wright, Sanjay K. Pandey, (2008) "Public Service Motivation andthe Assumption of Person—Organization Fit", Administration & Society,Vol. 40 Iss: 5, pp.502-521

Abstract

This study contributes to our understandingof public service motivation by clarifying the mechanisms through which publicservice motivation influences employee attitudes previously linked toorganizational performance. In particular, the authors find that therelationship between employee public service motivation and job satisfaction ismediated by the extent to which the employee perceives that his or her valuesare congruent with those of the public sector organization he or she works for.This study suggests that caution should be exercised when making claimsregarding the effects of public service motivation and that greater emphasisshould be placed on ways public sector organizations can fosteremployee—organization value congruence.


四、指示性摘要 Indicative Abstract

介绍性摘要,也称陈述性摘要。主要介绍论文的论题和目的,用简单的几句话使读者对论文所研究的主要内容有一概括的了解,不需要介绍方法、结果、结论的具体内容,也不需要用数据进行定量描述。多用于综述、会议报告等。

例:P. Zh. Khanduev, I. Ts. Sungrapova, (2009) "The methodology and methods ofdeveloping an indicative plan of development for a region", Studies onRussian Economic Development, Vol. 20 Iss: 5, pp.537–542

Abstract

This paper uncovers the role andsignificance of indicative planning in the management of the development of aregion. The main attention is devoted to the practice of its introduction inthe Republic of Buryatia. The principles of choosing the methods for developingan indicative plan are described in detail.


五、报道-指示性摘要 Informative-indicative Abstract

以报道性摘要的形式表述论文中信息价值较高的部分,以指示性摘要的形式表述其余部分。